Epidural Steroid Injection: The intended goal of the steroids is to reduce inflammation, swelling, and scarring that arise as a consequence of nerve irritation. This nerve irritation may be a result of a disc (herniated or ruptured) or a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis). Not only mechanical trauma cause nerve irritation but also the disc material itself can cause nerve inflammation (ruptured or “leaking” disc). The steroids also inactivate some of these irritating substances. Medications and physical therapy modalities may be used in conjunction with treatments. Transforaminal injections is a different approach, but is still an epidural injection. Allows us to place medication on a specific nerves that are causing pain.